<Music: “Il Sonno” from Vivaldi's bassoon concerto "La Notte">

Well this video on ornamentation is going to apply ornamentation and actually give you some examples to learn from.

Already on YouTube and  www.2reed.net I have a couple of videos of my performance of Vivaldi's
"La Notte," which is a concerto for bassoon and small string ensemble.

You might want to study that that piece, get the music and see the many the many ornaments that I
 have put into that [piece]. But let's take a look at some examples here.

There are several places in Baroque music where you should consider adding ornamentation. 
Cadences are one of those places. Not all Baroque music will indicate trills, but you should 
consider that when you're looking at the compositions.

Also with repetitions: Now some repetitions happen due to repeat signs, where a section is repeated,
but sometimes you have repetitions due to sequences. In either case you should consider providing
ornamentation on repeated segments to provide interest.

Don't forget to consider articulations and dynamics when you are varying your music.

Baroque treatises emphasize varied styles of tonguing and often modern articulation is really 
devoid of the different styles of tonguing in Baroque music so you should consider that. Baroque
tonguing patterns often includes three slurred and one tongued, but almost never two slurred and 
two tongued notes. The pattern two slurred and two tongued notes is common in the Classical 
period and Romantic period but not in the Baroque period. You should avoid that.

Consider adding dynamics also for added interest. Often you'll hear in Baroque music the echo
dynamic where you have one phrase played forte, for instance, and then upon the repetition that 
phrase played at a quieter dynamic.

Now, let's consider some music here as we apply our ornaments.

Here is the opening of the Andante movement of the Telemann Sonata in A minor for bassoon. 
This opening passage is repeated so the first time I would play this without any sort of variation 
but the second time I definitely would vary it. 

This is common to what I do in my music: I will put in some added notes here indicating
the ornamentation I'm adding to the music.

This ornamentation I only play the second time around. At the end of the movement as you can 
see there is no trill at the cadence so it is my pattern to add the trill at the end of the cadence. So 
let me begin first by playing for you the of opening segment of this. I will play it without 
ornaments the first time, the way I play it, and then I will play it the second time with the 
ornament. Then I will conclude this by playing the entire first section of the Andante as I would 
play it in the performance.

So now you have had the chance to hear this slightly ornamented version. You notice that 
I kept this movement quite simple. It seemed to be a beautiful melody so I added just a 
few ornaments to provide some variation.  Most of the ornamentation I did was at the beginning of 
the Andante.

You might notice that the of the second line I did very little ornamentation and that was because I 
had this dialogue going back and forth between the two voices.

If you had heard this performed with all the parts you would hear that the the cello or the continuo 
part starts out with these of staccato notes. By the way these little daggers are the way they showed staccato and the Baroque period.

It started out with staccato here and then I have staccato notes that are imitate that in the bassoon 
and this line with 16ths <singing> is imitated then in the other part. If I had decided to put an 
ornament here than I would have asked for the other part to put in an ornament as well. 

You might notice that I did not use vibrato, or at least very little vibrato. That tends to be my 
practice for Baroque music. Vibrato [as we use it now] was actually a 20th century development.
Vibrato in the Baroque time was actually an ornament applied into certain notes. So I try to 
minimize vibrato or use very little when I play Baroque music in order to focus on the purity 
of sound and to try to emulate the style little better. 

I hope this is has given you some ideas for applying your ornamentation.

I hope that you will go on to the fifth video where you get a chance to test yourself and try some ornaments yourself. God bless you, bye.

<Music: “Il Sonno” from Vivaldi's bassoon concerto "La Notte">