Bassoon Digital Professor #88.

Translation by Hanyu Qu. 译:屈涵雨

This is a remake of BDP#2.

<Music: Hummel, Bassoon Concerto, I, Terry B. Ewell, bassoon, and Peter Amstutz, fortepiano, Oct. 1997, Kent University.>

1) If you have not taken a look at the first video about reed finishing, I encouraged to do so. There are several concepts here I will be assuming that you understand.

2) This video here is essential for your understanding of the pedagogy I am putting forth for reed finishing. You may need to refer to this video several times.

3) Again I encourage you to visit, or look at my article, or go to The number “2” for 2reed. Look up the article on the “Pedagogy of Bassoon Reed Finishing” that I have supplied.

4) An important part of this concept is the idea of counterpoises. I have given here the definition of counterpoise. It is a force or influence that balances or equally counteracts another.

5) You will see in a moment or two that I use these concepts of specialty reed types as counterpoises for the way in which you can make reeds.你将会看到我会在对特殊的芦苇类型的哨片制作时使用这一“均衡性”的概念并为你的哨片制作提供方法。

6) Here for example are the three reed type counterpoises. These are the three specialty reed types. We have one counterpoise that is the "High Note" reed. Another counterpoise is this "Low Note/Quiet" reed. The third is this "Concerto/loud" reed.
7) We see that the normal reed is in the middle of this and in fact draws on various features from all three reed types. So you might want to think of each of the specialty reeds as being an extreme.

8) If we had, for instance, just two counterpoises then we would have a continuum. Normal might be in this area and you travel towards high note or low note on this continuum.

9) As you move toward "Low Note" you would borrow from concepts that create a low note or quiet reed. But I have in my idea of reed making actually three counterpoises or three reed types.

10) So this drawing best illustrate the concepts. So let's address the reed types.

11) The normal read type,--that is the one that we found in the center of the different types of counterpoises--the normal reed type is the best possible compromise of the three specially reed types.

12) It features stable intonation, a pleasing tone, and good articulation in all of the registers, but maybe not as well as some of the reed types. For instance, the high note reed may articulate better in the high register than the normal reed type. The low note reed may articulate better in the low register the normal reed type. So it's still a compromise.

13) It features flexible dynamic contrasts. And it features points of inflection. That was a term we introduced in our last video of the series.

14) The specialty reed types, features the three: high note, low note... (I might add that this quiet reed type is one that I use when I play continuo. This is where you want very subtle playing that perhaps joins a cello or another continuo instrument; you are able to play very quietly with a great tone. But generally you don't play much above a mezzo-forte dynamic in some of these continuo parts so you would emphasize that particular reed type.)
特殊哨片类型,有三种:高音型,低音型 (我可能会在演奏持续音的时候使用低音安静型的哨片。当演奏一个持续微弱的长音,或加入大提琴或其他演奏持续音的乐器中,这样的哨片类型可以让你诠释安静漂亮的音色。但要注意在有些持续音演奏或合奏时一般力度要小于中强,你就可以选取偏向于安静型的哨片)

15) ...and the concerto or loud reed, which is one that you would play a concerto with, hence the title.

16) Let's look at some of the features of these three specialty reed types. The high note read type in general features a narrower shape, either or
both in the blade itself or in the throat measurements as well--the tube. It has a shorter blade, rounded first and second wires, a greater heart to wins ratio, (Again review the first video for the location of the heart and wings) a greater spine to rail ratio, points of inflection, and a parallel scrape. This is again an example I introduced in the last video with extreme examples of the parallel scrape where generally from the heart area on back where we have the same thickness to the blade or the sloped or pyramid scrape where you have a sloping through most of the reed blade.
让我们来看看一些这三个专业哨片类型的特点。适合高音域演奏的哨片正常形态下应该是这样的:总体形状较窄,苇片或哨片的喉径较窄,哨座也较窄。此类哨片有较短的苇片,第一和第二铜环更圆一些,苇心至启动区的比例更大(需要再次复习关于介绍苇心与启动区的第一个视频 ),脊柱的比例,风口拐点将更大,和平行刨面。这也是我在最后一个视频里举出的关于平行刨面的极端例子,通常在苇心和后背区域苇片有相同的厚度,或在倾斜刨面的苇片上有一定的倾斜度。

17) The low note, quiet, or continuo reed features in general a wider shape (especially in the blade), a longer blade, flattened first and second wires, lesser heart to wings ratio, lesser spine to rails ratio with a thinner spine (that is going to be important for us to consider as well), a thinner tip, and often a sloping scrape. This seems to emphasize this reed a bit more.
适合演奏低沉,安静,持续声音的哨子形状通常较宽,苇片较长,一二铜环扁平,苇心至启动区的比例变小,中脊至叠合轨的比例变小(这点需要我们尤其注意), 更薄的起音区域,并通常是倾斜刨面的这点更突出了此类哨子的特点。

18) Our third type is the concerto or loud reed. This generally has a wider shape (particularly in the throat), features no points inflection or some slight inflections at the wings, a lesser spine to rails ratio with thicker rails and actually thicker spine as well, and a larger aperture height and width.

19) Now let's just further explore this concerto or loud reed.

20) In order to play loud on the bassoon it's a function not only of the amount of surface area you have vibrating on the reed, but also amount of air you can blow through the reed. So for this reason the concerto reed in general has a higher aperture height and aperture width through all of its articulation. That allows for greater air flow through the reed. That is also the reason for the wider throat shape. This can also help will reed to be louder. Again you have the ability to put more air through the reed.

21) Now I have to give a caveat here. Not all specialty reed types will have every feature listed. They will draw upon many of the characteristics as components to achieve the desired results. But that doesn't mean that all
these characteristics will be present. Think of these characteristics as a bit like the ingredients in a stew. More of one ingredient should be added if another ingredient is taken away or even omitted. This is sort of a recipe for playing. You might have a high note reed in which one player might find it preferable instead of having a narrow blade, for instance, instead to have a shorter blade. 

22) Now let's try to understand the relationship between points of inflection and the reed types. I have mentioned that for instance, that the concerto reed does not have these points of inflection as much. You do tend to find these in the high note and often even in the low note r  eed.

23) Reeds with points of inflection allow for multiple reed apertures. This is due to the spring like action of the reed. The spring like action permits the performer to select varying reed apertures as is illustrated here. So you can make a choice of having a very open aperture to having an aperture that is very small and everything in between. Since the apertures change the vibration surface, it is almost as if you are changing the size of the reed. That's why it's very helpful to have the smallest reed possible for the highest register. That's why the illustration here in 3 shows a lesser vibration area--this white area would be vibrating. This would be closed off with more embouchure pressure shown here in number 3.

24) Conversely you have a greater vibration area with a very relaxed embouchure. Only the very blackest areas here are dampening vibration.
The rest of this would be vibrating. That would favor of course a lower register, a louder reed, and those sorts of issues as well.

<Music: Hummel, Bassoon Concerto, I, Terry B. Ewell, bassoon, and Peter Amstutz, fortepiano, Oct. 1997, Kent University.>
<音乐:哈默巴松管协奏曲第一乐章,巴松管演奏:唐英伟博士;钢琴伴奏:彼得.阿姆斯特茨;199710月,肯特大学。> 以上版权归唐英伟博士所有(2012)