Bassoon Digital Professor #89.

Translation by Hanyu Qu. 译:屈涵雨

This is a remake of BDP#2.

<Music: Hummel, Bassoon Concerto, I, Terry B. Ewell, bassoon, and Peter Amstutz, fortepiano, Oct. 1997, Kent University.>
<音乐:胡梅尔巴松协协奏曲No.1 巴松:Terry B. Ewell, 古钢琴:Peter Amstutz 于Kent大学1997年演奏>

1.    This spring-like action of the points of inflection allows an infinite variety of apertures. As such it gives the widest dynamic contrast and diversity of timbre or tone on the reed. It helps the player to adjust to all sorts of different situations. Perhaps it is also helpful with intonation. 哨片拐点的震动可以决定无数种风口类型。它赋予了哨片音量力度的对比和音色音调的多样性。它可以帮助演奏者适应各种不同的演奏场合。也许也可以很好的提高演奏者的音准把 握。

2.    So in general this is why I find that my normal reed needs points of inflection. I think that most players would say that their normal reed needs points of inflection as well. It allows for dynamic nuance, and gives the player a greater range of tone and abilities to play with. 所以这就是为什么我发现我平常练习用的哨片需要制作拐点的原因。我认为大多数演奏者跟我想的一样。有很多力度上细微的变化使演奏者可以演奏各种不同的音色 并且锻炼不同的能力。

3.    Now a reed with no points of inflection—again this tends to be the concerto reed type—will have what I call an “all or nothing” aperture. This is, of course, an extreme example. We don't even see points of inflection at the corners (edge of the tip area). 现在我们看一个没有拐点的哨片。这种类型的哨片适合做协奏曲演奏,它有一种我称作“全能或者全无”的风口属性。当然,这是一个极端的例子。我们几乎遇不到风口拐点在尖端的 哨片。

4.    If we were to have a number 4, it would show the reed all the way flat (closed). 如果我们有第四种哨片类型的话,它是一个整个哨片都是扁平并且风口闭合的状态。

5.    But notice how the entire surface of the reed, at least in this picture here, is all vibrating. However, the aperture height has been greatly diminished. 但是我们注意哨片的整个表面,至少在这个图片里,都是震动的。值得一提的是风口的高度是从风口处逐渐减小的。

6.    This means less air is able to go through the reed. Obviously number 3 here is going to be quieter (softer) in dynamic than number 1. Number 3 is probably going to be easier to play up high; number 1 down low. 这就说明了越来越少的空气会集中的通过哨子。很显然第三种类型的哨片是会比第一种哨片有一个更轻柔的音色的。第三种类型的哨片更容易演奏高音,而第一种则更容易在低音区发 声。

7.    So with the concerto reed you still have a maximum amount of vibration surface, but you are able through embouchure adjustments and adjustments of the reed aperture to play throughout the entire range of the instrument.所以对于适合演奏协奏曲的哨片你在演奏的时候哨片表面的很大区域还是会跟着震动,但是你可以通过调整口型来控制风口大小在不同的音域演奏。

8.    Let’s further explore these reed types in terms of how they apply to the normal reed. For instance, if you are having consistent difficulties with the high register of the bassoon , you might have a normal reed type that favors the low register. 让我们把这些类型的哨子放到我们日常练习的方面来讨论。例如,你在演奏高音的时候总是很困难,你就需要一个能在低音区发音很通畅的哨片。

9.    So for instance, your reed may tend to occupy this position, drawing only a little bit from the high note characteristics, favoring much more the low note or quiet characteristics. In this particular location it does not also favor the concerto reed. In order for you to gain better command of the high register and have more accuracy with the high register, towards the high note reed. 再例举一种情况,你的哨片可能倾向于适应了你的演奏方式,在高音区发声小,更容易演奏低音并且音量偏小,这种情况下,哨片也不是适合演奏协奏曲的那种哨片。为了使你在高音 区发音更通畅并且提高音准,你就需要一个能轻易演奏高音的巴松哨片。

10.    So you would look at the concepts of what is in a high note reed and make some of those adjustments, make changes in what you find in the low note reed, moving it in the direction of the high note reed.所以你可以了解一些适合演奏高音的哨片的特点并且在你的哨片上做相应的调整,使得能轻易演奏低音的哨片向适宜演奏高音哨片的方向做出调整。

11.    Now you notice that I have listed a number of characteristics of the high note reed. Part of reed making is learning which characteristic to change. A lot of this comes from experience. A lot can also come from learning from other reed makers, from talking with them, from learning from a teacher (if you have one), and of course experimentation.现在你可以看到我列举了适合演奏高音的哨片的几个特点。学习制造巴松哨片的一部分就是学习改变各种哨片的特性为自己所用。这之中很多来自 于制作哨片的经验。还有就是跟制作哨片的人学习讨论,和专业老师讨教,还有自己的实践。

12.    If you are in that situation where you have a low note reed and you want to change it to a high note reed, well pick one quality of the high note reed that you think your reed doesn’t have and apply it to that reed and see what changes it made.如果你正在使用一个适合演奏低音的哨片但是你想把它调整到一个更容易演奏高音的状态,你就可以找一个适合演奏高音属性的哨子,观察它所有的你现在的哨片没有的特 点并且在现有的哨片上做出修改再观察效果。

13.    It probably pushes it in this direction, but making it pushes it in a direction you don’t like. Maybe it changes the timbre, or the articulation, or something. So you may need to make another adjustment. 它可能按照你预计的发展,但是也有可能相反。相应的调整可能改变哨片的音色,或者发音清晰度与精准度,或者是其他的。这个时候你可能需要做其他的调整。

14.    But the way to learn these characteristics and how to move your reeds in one direction or another—for  your normal reed—is to have your normal reed adopt more of these characteristics.但是学习这些哨片特性并把你的哨片向这种特性改变的方法之一就是把你平常用的哨片稍作调整,使它拥有你想要的那种特点。

15.    I know that in my career, when I first started my professional career playing with the Hong Kong Philharmonic, I had a reed in this location. It drew more on the concerto tendencies and definitely drew upon the high note tendencies. 据我所知在我的职业生涯里,在我第一次在香港爱乐乐团做专业演奏员的时候,我的哨片就是通过调整它更倾向于演奏协奏曲的属性和更适宜于演奏高音的属性。

16.    Through my playing experience, and part of this is because I play much more chamber music now than I do orchestral music, I think my reed has moved more over to this area. 根据我的演奏经验,部分由于我室内乐的演奏经历多余交响乐团的演奏经历,我的哨片的属性就倾向于演奏室内乐。

17.    So everyone’s normal will move around in this spectrum. It is good for you to understand that your normal over the years will move according to the demands of playing you have. 所以大家的哨片属性都会在这个图表所示的范围之内。当你更了解自己平常练习用的哨片的时候,你会更加了解你想要的哨片类型和音色来更好的服务于你的演奏。

18.    So having these concepts and being able to apply these different reed type counterpoises—these specialty reeds—will help you to adjust your normal reed and will help you gain the conception of not only how to make the specialty reeds (which are also important) but also how to make your normal reed. 所以当你建立了这些我介绍的概念和能运用这些不同的哨片类型的时候,它们会帮助你调整你现有的哨片并且会让你形成不仅要做出属性不同的哨片而且要找出适合你演奏的哨片。

19.    Well, let me close with another prayer for you. God I would ask for your blessing on those listening to this video. That You would become real in their lives. That you would open their understanding to reed making and reed types. And Lord you would also open their understanding to You. We ask this in Your Name. Amen. 现在让我用一段祈祷来结束这堂课:愿上帝保佑听到我课的学生们,能在自己的哨片制作和职业生涯中获得更多认识,也请打开他们对你的认识,呼求主名,阿门。

<Music: Hummel, Bassoon Concerto, I, Terry B. Ewell, bassoon, and Peter Amstutz, fortepiano, Oct. 1997, Kent University.>
<音乐:胡梅尔巴松协协奏曲No.1 巴松:Terry B. Ewell, 古钢琴:Peter Amstutz 于Kent大学1997年演奏>