Welcome, this is Terry Ewell. I think if Weissenborn had ever heard a tango, he would have written something like this:

1.    大家好!欢迎来到今天的唐英伟巴松课堂。我经常想,如果维斯伯恩曾经听过探戈,他一定会写一些这样的乐段:

Example Tango

I can’t help but hear a Tango when I play certain portions of this study! Sorry, I now think you will be imagining the same thing too.

1.    在吹奏这首练习曲的时候,有些乐段我情不自禁地听到了探戈!不好意思,我想你现在一定和我有同感了。

There is a tendency to rush during the staccato eighth notes in line 3. Unfortunately I amply demonstrated this rushing in my recording of the study!

1.    在这首练习曲的第三行,我们非常倾向于在跳音的八分音符上赶节奏。很可惜,刚才在我的演奏中,我充分地证明了这一点。

Example (picture only)

Another rhythmic problem in the study is found with the three slurred notes. The tendency is to rush those as well. Don’t play them like this:

1.    这首练习曲里另一个容易出错的节奏是那些带连线的三个音。我们也不由自主地在这些音上抢节奏。注意不要演奏成这样:



Three Slurred Notes

(Example line 4 rushed.)

Instead keep an accurate rhythm

1.    相反,我们希望的是保持准确的节奏。

(Example line 4 accurate)

In line 4 you can play Eb4 with just the G key. You might find this easier, and certainly it makes for a better D4-Eb4 trill.

1.    第四行,你可以只用G键吹奏出降E4。你会发现这种方法简单些,而且确实对后面的D4-E4的装饰音颤音有帮助。

Now let’s work some more on our control of the air and tongue. Let’s first slur all the notes in the descending 3rds in line 3. Pay close attention to the way in which you phrase the notes. Create a full phrase with these notes. Shape the notes with your air, “the wind.”

1.    现在,让我们看看怎样控制气流和舌头。首先,在第三行,让我们连起下行3度的所有音。同时请注意你把它们组成乐句的方式。要把这些音连成一个完整的句子。用气流把这些音呈现得像风一样

Example slurred

Example On the Wind

Now without changing the beautiful shape you made with the air let’s make different lengths of articulation. In Weissenborn study #7 I introduced a scaling of articulations from 1 to 5.

1.    现在,在不改变你刚才用气流做出的那些优美的乐句的前提下,让我们试着改变发音的长度。在《维斯伯恩高级练习曲集》的第七首中,我介绍了一组用数字15来衡量发音长度的练习。我们也要在这里做相同的练习。

We will practice with those same articulations here.

Here is length number 5.

1.    这是长度5


Notice that component 1 (breath) and component 5 (embouchure) work just as they did when I slurred the example. The length of notes is determined by the amount of time the tongue (component 4) is on the reed, not by a change in the other components. For length number 5 the tongue touches the reed as little as possible.


1.    在这里,注意部件1(呼吸)和部件5(吹口)要像我用连音的方式演奏这个例子。音符的长度取决于舌头(部件4)在簧片上的时间长度,而不是改变到其他部件。对于长度5,舌头要尽量短地接触簧片。

Here is length number 4

1.    这是长度4


Here is length number 3

1.    这是长度3


Here is length number 2

1.    这是长度2


And here are the shortest notes, length number 1

1.    这是最短的音,长度1


I realize that it may be difficult for you to hear the differences, so let’s take a look at the sound waves. Here I am using a software program called Reaper.

1.    我知道听出这些音的区别可能有些难,那让我们来看看这些声音的波形吧。我在这里用了一个叫做Reaper的软件。

Let’s see how well I did differentiating the note lengths. You can see a difference between lengths 5 and 4. The difference between 3 and 4 is more difficult to see partly because I didn’t play the two at the same speed. It looks like the later notes are indeed shorter in 3 than in 4. The differences in note lengths between 2 and 3 and 1 and 2 are distinct.

1.    让我们看看我是怎样展示这些不同的音长的。你可以看到54的不同。34有些难以区分,是因为我没有用相同的速度演奏这两条。看起来3里面后面的几个音确实比4要短些。23的音长与12是很明显的。


Articulations 4 and 5

Articulations 3 and 4

Articulations 2 and 3

Articulations 1 and 2

Only by separating the five components from one another and allowing them to operate independently can I achieve this variety of articulation. If my embouchure or the jaw tries to articulate, it will only impede the variety I can achieve with the tongue at a variety of tempos.

1.    只有通过将5个部件各自分开并独立分析每一个,我才有可能看清发音方式的多样性。如果我试图用吹口或者下巴来做发音,那么这样只会阻碍我在各种不同的速度中用舌头做出多种形式的发音。

Practice with all five articulations and see if you can gain further mastery. In the actual study I would choose to play the short notes at a number 2 or 3 in length.

1.    试着练习这五种发音方式,看看你是不是掌握得更好了。在真正吹奏这首练习曲时,我会选择用23号的长度来演奏短音符。

I realize in my performance of the study I do move my jaw with the articulations in that passage. Jaw movements do allow for some shaping of the staccato notes.

1.    我注意到在演奏这首练习曲时,我的下巴也随着发音移动了。在演奏断奏音符时,下巴有时是可以运动的。

However, my experience is that jaw movement when coordinated with tonguing is limited to the middle range of articulation numbers. It works with articulation numbers 2 or 3, but will not work well with articulations 5, 4, and 1. My point is that for the greatest variety of articulations you need to minimize or remove entirely the motion of the jaw or embouchure.

1.    然而,我的经验是,下巴运动与舌头相结合时,只适用于发音方式的中间几个数字。比如,对于发音方式23,这个方法是适用的,但并不适用于541。我的观点是,对于多种变化的发音方式,你需要尽量减少或者完全不动下巴或吹口。



This is the third part of our discussion of intonation on the bassoon. In this reflection I draw upon material I presented in an article published in the Double Reed journal:

1.    这是我们关于巴松音准讨论的第三部分。在今天的思考时间部分里,我找出了我曾经在《双簧乐器杂志》上发表的一篇文章:

Bassoon Registers

There are three registers on the bassoon. In general there is a progression from sharper notes at the bottom of the registers to more neutral notes in the middle and then towards flatter notes at the top of the registers. The second register’s progressions through the vowels are more rapid than the first register. The pitches tendencies are rather wild and uneven in the third register.

1.    巴松上有三个音区。一般来说,从音区底部偏高的音到中部正常的音,再到高部偏低的音是逐渐变化的。第二音区通过元音的变化过程比第一音区要快。第三音区的音更不均匀且更难控制。

Moving between registers requires a rapid vowel shift. For instance, movement from E3 to F3 requires a quick shift from “ee” to “ah to properly tune the notes.

1.    在不同的音区移动需要快速的元音变化。比如,从E3变到F3需要快速地从元音ee变化到 “ah”,从而使得音准更好。

Carefully experiment with other aspects of these registers. Mastering intonation on the bassoon requires that you understand these pitch tendencies on the instrument. Practicing scales and arpeggios with drones is a great way to gain mastery with intonation.

1.    仔细地对这几个音区从不同的角度试验一下。在巴松上掌握校对音准需要你理解在这个乐器上音高的变化趋向。用嗡嗡声来练习音阶和琶音是使音准更好的一个方法。

I will be explaining more about tuning and crossing over a register break in Weissenborn study #32.

1.    我会在《维斯伯恩高级练习曲》第32首中讲解更多关于调音和跨越音区演奏的技巧。

Note on F3:

Acoustically F3 is the top note of the fundamental range of the bassoon, the upper most note of the first register. However, F3 is quite sharp on Heckel bassoons, and for this reason I am grouping it with the second register. It requires a vowel type closer to F#3 than E3. Your bassoon may be different.