There are drawbacks to a throat vibrato. Sometimes it can result in a “nanny goat” vibrato that is too fast. In other individuals the vibrato can be choked off at each pulse. In both cases it is important to support properly the tone and view the vibrato as coloration or gentle massaging of the tone. In all cases, seek to relax the throat area and allow free movement.


Using the throat for the vibrato allows for vibrato to be independent of fingering and pitch control. However, I many times find students restarting the vibrato with each note change. Take, for instance, the pickup to line 7 in Weissenborn Study #35. Often it is played like this:


Example with vibrato restarting

Vibrato Restarting

There are times at which I will restart my vibrato like that.

However, that is a coloration of the notes rather than an expression of music motion or phrasing. I prefer to be able to do both. Many of my students, however, at first can only turn on the vibrato with the start of each note.

1.    有些情况下,我会重新像那样重新开始我的颤音。但是,这样做的目的是为这个音润色而不是因为音乐或乐句的表现需要。我宁愿能够一举两得。然而,我的很多学生起初只能做到每个音都重新开始颤音。

Let’s practice the musical phrase—a drive—with dynamics and vibrato, on a monotone. Playing on a single tone is a great practice method for musical gestures. This really helps you to isolate musical phrasing, dynamics, and vibrato. I will set the metronome so that you can hear the beats.


Example Play on single note

Did you hear that I am shaping the notes, driving the notes to the downbeat of the second measure?


Here it is again.

Example single note.

Did you notice that I am varying both the dynamics and my vibrato? Both are creating a continuous arc or rainbow of sound that is not chopped up.


Now let’s hear that as written, but retaining the same phrase shape.


Example as written

vibrato played through

Just a few studies ago Weissenborn provided us with another example for practicing vibrato. Take a look at the opening of study #33.


For instance, I start with two, 2-bar gestures followed by a much longer phrase. Notice that I use changes in the dynamics and vibrato to emphasize the phrase shaping.


Example from video

You can practice mastery of your vibrato by varying the speed. Set the metronome to 60 and try varying the number of pulses per beat.


Play : 11 22 33 44 55 44 33 22 11

Most often people increase the speed of their vibratos in tandem with an increase in dynamics. This is what I did in the two examples earlier in this video. However, if you really want mastery of vibrato you need to vary the speed at any dynamic. You will know you that you have gained independent control of components 1 and 2 when you can perform these exercises:



Larynx  Illustration from Henry Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body, 1918, accessed from, 16 Aug 2006.

Vibrato references

Brown, Andrew F. David. “A Comprehensive Performance Project in Oboe Literature with a Cinefluorographic Pilot Study of the Throat While Vibrato Tones Are Played On Flute and Oboe.” D.M.A. thesis, University of Iowa, 1973.
Burns, Michael. “Thoughts and Strategies for Bassoon Vibrato.” The Double Reed 28/2 (2005): 121-124.

Cameroni, Kathleen A. “Effects of Vibrato Production Techniques and Use on Musical Collaborations among Flutists, Oboists, Clarinetists, and Bassoonists”
Eberle, Jan. Presentations at the International Double Reed conferences in 2005 and 2006. IDRS Video: (2005) “ longer a mystery”

Ewell, Terry B. “Survey of Cinefluographic and Videoflurographic Research on Double Reed Performers,” Celebrating Double Reeds: A Festschrift for William Waterhouse and Philip Bate. Baltimore: International Double Reed Society, 2009, pp. 143-158. 

Kahane, J. C.;  Beckford, N. S.; Chorna,  L. B.; Teachey, J. C.; and McClelland, D. K. “Videofluoroscopic and Laryngoscopic Evaluation of the Upper Airway and Larynx of Professional Bassoon Players.” Journal of Voice 20/2 (2006): 297-307. Also accessed 22 July 2006 at

Peeples, Georgia. “Developing the Bassoon Vibrato.” Woodwind, Brass, and Percussion 23/2 (February 1984): 17-18.

Pool, Scott. Bassoon Vibrato Production: Observations of the Larynx. Available at

Pool, Scott. "Observations of the Larynx During Vibrato Production Among Professional Bassoonists as Indicated in Experiments Utilizing Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy" (UMI Number:  3158141, Copyright 2004).

Weait, Christopher and Shea, J. “Vibrato: An Audio-Video-Fluorographic Investigation of a Bassoonist,” Applied Radiology (January/February 1977).